bat creek stone translation

American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York. word divider read, from right to left, LYHWD, or "for Judea." Shetrone, Henry C. Moreover, detailed compositional analyses of metal artifacts are not routine even in recent studies. If it could be shown to work even better as Coelbren, "The Cherokee Solution to the Bat Creek Enigma". While few archaeologists would deny a priori the possibility of early voyages to the New World, the simple fact is that, with the exception While it is possible that the recent AMS determination accurately dates the burial, McCulloch s claim that the date "rules out the possibility of a modern origin for either the inscription or the bracelets" (1988:116) is not only erroneous, but also represents a characteristic, non-skeptical, cult archaeology assertion about a topic in which he has no expertise. [1] According to Emmert, the site consisted of one large mound (Mound1) on the east bank of the creek and two smaller mounds (Mound2 and Mound3) on the west bank. "The Bat Creek Stone: Judeans in Tennessee?". I own no rights to this excerpt.Murray's Original Bat Creek Video:'s Chapel: [7] The forced removal of Native peoples from their land and the severing of Native people from their heritage was partially enacted by "destroying indigenous pyramid mounds" and "The creation of the Myth of the Mounds". J. Huston MuCulloch, an Ohio State University economics professor . Academic Press, Inc., New York. It is wise therefore to refrain from basing theories on one or two specimens of an unusual or abnormal type, unless their claim to a place among genuine prehistoric relics can be established beyond dispute. Whiteford (1952:207-225) summarizes some of these: "It is impossible to use the data presented by Thomas in the Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology with any conviction that they present a complete or even, in some cases, an accurate picture of the material which Emmert excavated in the Tennessee Area" (1952:217) "Mound No. After examining the stones inscribed grooves and outer weathering rind using standard and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and researching the historical documentation, the team of Scott Wolter and Richard Stehly of American Petrographic Services conclude that the inscription is consistent with many hundreds of years of weathering in a wet earth mound comprised of soil and hard red clayand that the stonecan be no younger than when the bodies of the deceased were buried inside the mound. This was an undisputed Hopewell burial mound, and therefore the Hebrew inscribed artifact falls within the time frames of the Book of Mormon in the heartland of America. [5], The Bat Creek Stone remains the property of the Smithsonian Institution, and is catalogued in the collections of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, NMNH catalog number 8013771 and original US National Museum number A134902-0. appears in BAR July/Aug. excavated and whose context been carbon-dated to Since neither of the authors have training in ancient Near Eastern languages, we requested an assessment of the Bat Creek inscription from Frank Moore Cross, Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages at Harvard University. 12/29/05. In: Book of the Descendants of Doctor Benjamin Lee and Dorothy Gordon, edited by M.B. The Bat Creek Stone was discovered in 1889, supposedly in a Native American burial mound. In Paleo-Hebrew, words are required to be The Bat Creek Inscription: Cherokee or Hebrew? According to Emmert's field notes, the Bat Creek Stone was found in Mound3. However, Wilson et al. have, in addition to a loop on the right, an arm to the left 1941 Peachtree Mound and Village Site, Cherokee County, North Carolina. In the published literature, there is no indication that any Cherokee scholar has ever agreed with Cyrus Thomas's interpretation of the Bat Creek stone, nor have we encountered any references to the stone in the Cherokee linguistic or ethnographic literature (e.g., Mooney 1892, as well as examples noted below). Does Arnold Murray understand Hebrew? This arm in fact appears The cornerstone of this reconstruction is at present the Bat Creek inscription because it was found in an unimpeachable archaeological context under the direction of professional archaeologists working for the prestigious Smithsonian Institution.". Mahan, Joseph B. Jr. Robert Stieglitz (1976) confirmed Gordon's reading of the Please feel free to contact us with any questions or comments you have about our organization. The match to Cherokee is no I am having the bone and the wood found in the tomb dated by the Smithsonian Institution by the carbon-14 process; fortunately, these items were present with the stone, for stone cannot be dated this way; the material has to be organic for carbon-14. McCulloch, J. Huston (1993b). maintain that Tennessee Archaeologist 27(2):38-45. ABSTRACT 1914 The American Indian in the United States, Period 1850-1914. Rebuilding it would require only about 38 cubic yards of According to him, the five letters to the left of the comma-shaped Unlike the Davenport frauds and the Kennsington runestone, the Bat Creek stone generated little interest, and consequently there is no "paper trail" to follow. McCulloch's paper includes the results of an AMS assay of some wood fragments apparently associated with the burial containing the Bat Creek stone. Our analysis will focus primarily on alleged similarities with Paleo-Hebrew, although a few comments will be made concerning Thomas' (1890, 1894) identification of the signs as Cherokee. that looks nothing like the second Bat Creek letter. Your email address will not be published. The University of Tennessee excavators didn't investigate Mound 2 or Mound 3, both of which no longer existed. Macoy, Robert, General History, Cyclopedia and Dictionary of Mertz, Henriette, The Wine Dark Sea: Homer's Heroic Epic of the North "Thomas also reports enclosed burial areas, vaguely similar to those described above, from Sullivan County. text. 3-548. Ventnor Publishers, Ventnor, N.J. Pastor Murray is the scholar who finally translated the inscription. There are, however, a number of unpublished documents that shed some light on the issue. However, the most telling difference between the Bat The stone was found placed behind the head of one of the bodies in the mounds. [5] Mainfort and Kwas have identified the source of the inscription. The Bat Creek Stone was professionally excavated in 1889 from an undisturbed burial mound in Eastern Tennessee by the Smithsonian's Mound Survey project. and 1989 reprint edition; illustration not in 1867 edition). Printed by the author, Chicago. space as in English or modern Hebrew. 2, article 65, 1976): 1-5. Accessed 12/28/05. (sic) in the Mertz/Gordon orientation, The University of Iowa, Iowa City. and A.D. 100, but not for the second century C.E. In the 1960s, Henriette Mertz and Corey Ayoob both Revised and enlarged edition. assumed that the words should be separated by a space, Mound 2 was a burial mound approximately 3 m tall and 13 m in diameter. Dexter's excellent photographs of the inscription Fowke did not make this statement out of ignorance of the Bat Creek stone's existence, because not only had he extensively studied the lithic material recovered by the mound survey (Fowke 1896), but also mentioned the stone in one of his own publications (1902). Unfortunately, Emmert had a drinking problem which "renders his work uncertain" (Thomas to Powell, 20 September 1888), and led to his dismissal. Archeologist Kenneth Feder has commended Thomas's efforts, which "initiated the most extensive and intensive study" "conducted on the Moundbuilder question". Another of nearby Bat Creek Mound #2 at the time of excavation, so it 1979 Tunica Treasure. 1892 Improved Cherokee Alphabets. to 400 AD.2. Tennessee Anthropologist 1988(2), pp. Andover Press, Andover. The second line actually contains The string YHW-, or Yahu-, the first three letters Carter, George 1-2. Introduction Up Bat Creek (Without a Paddle): Mormon Assessment of the Bat Creek Stone. "MEGALITHS" With Dr Barry Fell & Dr Arnold Murray, Shepherd's Chapel "They Came A Viking" - E. Raymond Capt, Shepherd's Chapel, "North American Sun Kings" - Dr. Mahan & Dr. Arnold Murray, Shepherd's Chapel, "CHRISTMAS" Dr Arnold Murray, Shepherd's Chapel. To my knowledge, nothing proves that the Bat Creek stone is Jewish and not Celtiberian. In Thomas' defense, however, it is worth noting that some of the signs (ii, iii, and vii in the orientation illustrated by Thomas [1890, 1894], and i, 11, iii, and vii in the purported Paleo-Hebrew orientation) exhibit moderate to close resemblances with characters of the Cherokee syllabary. It also seems worth mentioning that Cyrus Thomas was neither the first nor the last archaeologist to be taken in by a questionable artifact. The sign is impossible for Paleo-Hebrew. The stone was discovered in 1889 in Bat Creek Mound # 3 near the mouth of Bat Creek in Loudoun County during a series of burial-mound excavations conducted under the Bureau of American Ethnology. "had been covered by a cluster of The inscribed stone was found in an undisturbed Hopewell burial mound along the Little Tennessee River near the mouth of Bat Creek. W.H. One of the arguments against the authenticity of these stones is the supposed lack of corroborating evidence for Hebrew language. Bat Creek: Excavations in the Smithsonian Archives," July 1987. An unknown party added two nearly parallel vertical strokes while the stone was stored in the National Museum of Natural History from 1894 and 1970. In context, Gordon is saying here that mainsteam researchers who disagree with his contention that all "advanced" cultures are directly traceable to the Near East do so out of fear and peer pressure, rather than the fact that much of the evidence that he presents is of a very dubious nature (see also Chadwick 1969 and Lambert 1984). 1907 Cherokee. Litigation and environmental concerns stalled the dam's completion until 1979, allowing extensive excavations at multiple sites throughout the valley. Although various stone structures are often presented as evidence of pre-Columbian contacts (e.g., Fell 1976), it is the considerable number of purported ancient Old World inscriptions from virtually all parts of the North America that are particularly heralded by proponents as "proof" of transatlantic voyages. 3, Such findings may finally provide precedent to re-examine the Newark Holy Stones which also bear ancient Hebrew inscriptions and were recovered from a Hopewell burial mound near Newark Ohio. BAT CREEK STONE Murray was the first to completly make sense (properly translate) of all inscriptions on this stone (with simplicity in its simple form). At the base of the mound "nine skeletons were found lying on the original surface of the ground, surrounded by dark colored earth." Click on link for PDF file. Bat Creek stone, which was professionally at the approximate site of the mound 1968 Mound Builders of Ancient America: The Archaeology of a Myth. the stone was at the Smithsonian, sometime between 1894 and 1971. Although the authors have no formal training in the Cherokee syllabary (nor do cult archaeology writers such as Gordon and McCulloch), it seems necessary to Review, Vol. Gordon (1971, 1972) later identified sign viii as "aleph," but did not mention it in a subsequent discussion of the Bat Creek stone (Gordon 1974). Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1890-'91. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus. He reported that the Bat Creek Stone was found under the skull of the south-facing skeleton. Appleton and Co., New York. Moreover, Cyrus Thomas was never shy about naming names, whether by way of praise or criticism. Both inscriptions do contain two words, with the identical string in which case it might be a numeral indicating Year 1 or Hence, Thomas's interpretation, although incorrect, at least had some basis. [2] According to the American Petrographic Services' evaluation of the stone, the marks are characterized by smooth, "rounded grooves". 1980 Cult Archaeology and Unscientific Method and Theory. orientation, and although several of the letters are not perfect as Paleo-Hebrew, and 9 burials, was "of small size, measuring but 28 feet ohsu badge office hours, why did manjinder virk leaves midsomer,

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